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Column - 4D Bioprinting: A Technology for the Future

While the number of patients waiting for organ transplantation is continuously increasing, the number of organ donors is always far less than that. For replacing the insufficiency of organ donors, three dimensional (3D) printing technology began to be used in the bioindustry. Through 3D bioprinting, bones, ears, exoskeleton, blood vessels, tissues, and organs can be produced. The bioindustry fields utilizing the technology are body transplantation, anatomical model, and pharmaceutical industry research. In general, 3D printing types include laser, inkjet, and extrusion, and among these, inkjet-based printers are the most used for bioprinting. The process of inkjet-based 3D bioprinting is as follows: (1) Create blueprints of the tissue or organ. (2) Extract stem cells from the patient and differentiate them into cells of a specific tissue or organ. (3) Fill the printer's bioink with the differentiated cells, vascular cells, and other necessary media. (4) Put the bioprinted result in a bioreactor to look at the reaction. (5) Transplant into the patient. Since it is the transplantation of organs made by culturing cells extracted from the patient's body, rather than human-to-human transplantation, side effects and secondary infections can be significantly reduced. Other advantages include that it is possible to produce a personalized organ, saving time as a result, and available regardless of location. However, as the human body constantly changes, the tissues or organs that are transplanted in the body must also be able to transform itself according to environmental factors. Four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting is a technology currently being developed to satisfy this aspect. 4D printing is the first technology known in 2013 by Prof. Skylar Tibbits of MIT Self-Assembly Lab in the United States, and in 2014, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) selected 4D printing as one of the top 10 promising technologies. ▲ 4D printing is creating something that can be self-assembled through a 3D printer. 4D printing is about creating a "smart material" that can be self-transformed or self-assembled by various energy sources such as temperature and humidity even after the production through a 3D printer. In other words, the concept of time (one dimension) has been added to 3D (three-dimensional) printing. In terms of self-assemblable, 4D printing is a necessary technology, especially in the bioindustry. This is because, in general, natural biomolecules recognize other biomolecules and make changes such as synthesis and migration. To be specific, in the process of cell formation, polymers (including nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, etc.) are made from simple precursors, and then larger and more complex structures such as macromolecular systems and organelles are formed. The polymers contain the information necessary for them to be self-formed into macromolecular systems. A typical example is when a single DNA strand recognizes the opposite single DNA strand, and the two join to form a double-stranded DNA. Another example could be the case when many proteins and ribonucleic acid molecules self-assemble to form ribosomes. Moreover, the cases where the antibody recognizes and binds to a specific antigen and the fiber synthesis of flagella protein are also great examples of self-assembly. Stimulants that activate self-assembly include physical stimulants such as temperature, humidity, light, magnetic field, electric field, chemical stimulants such as pH and ionic concentration, and biological stimulants such as glucose and enzymes. A number of elements can be used as a stimulator of 4D bioprinting results. 4D printing has tremendous potential as it can be used in various fields such as tissue regeneration in the bioindustry (making and transplanting scaffold proteins necessary for tissue regeneration), medical device manufacturing, drug administration, and medical diagnosis. Besides, the advantages of 4D bioprinting are that the size of the initial product can be reduced as much as possible to minimize the scar at the site of transplantation, and new complex structures can be created using lower-level molecules. However, as there are a wide variety of stimulants and directions, 4D bioprinting technology is still only at an early stage. This is because all possibilities caused by biosynthetic and molecular biology principles must be considered, and side effects and secondary problems such as secondary infection must be identified. Last year, a Korean bio company released the first 4D bioprinter product to which human organ regeneration technology was applied, and showed demonstrations such as printing artificial skin. I hope that it was a successful first step in 4D printing technology. Also, in the future, we all hope that the number of patients leaving the world waiting for donors would be zero as artificial organ transplant treatments significantly improve.

AprilBio-Celros Biotech Signs a Joint Research Agreement for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Dual Antibody Treatment

On April 24, AprilBio, the new drug bio venture, announced that it has signed a joint research agreement with Celros Biotech, the inflammatory drug development company, for dual antibody treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (hereinafter IBD). Both companies plan to develop therapeutics using Celros Biotech's antibody and inflammation control source technology, and AprilBio's anti-Serum Albumin Fab-Associated (SAFA) platform source technology and antibody conjugation technology. Inflammatory bowel disease is a disease in which abnormal chronic inflammation in the large and small intestine improves and recurs repeatedly. The therapeutic efficacy of current therapeutic antibodies is only 30%, so unmet medical demand is high. The agreement presents a new concept that the therapeutic effect can be significantly improved by stably double-binding the antibody developed by Celros Biotech with the existing SAFA technology of AprilBio. "SAFA technology is a platform technology applicable to various drugs and mechanisms, so the effectiveness of SAFA technology can be highly appreciated through the joint development of innovative new drugs for IBD," said Sang-Hoon Cha, CEO at AprilBio. "We are pleased to cooperate with AprilBio, which has abundant experience and source technology in double-antibody binding. We hope not only to discover new anti-drug candidates effective for the treatment of IBD, but also to continue to cooperate and develop global innovative new drugs with AprilBio in the future," said Yoon-Soo Bae, CEO at Celros Biotech.

EBS Response to the Unprecedented National Disaster... Urgent Schedule for Special SchoolCourses Live Streaming for 1st to 12th grade.

⁃ EBS has urgently organized for 1st to 12th grade from March 23rd(Mon) ~ April 3rd (Fri) ⁃ With company-wide capabilities fully mobilized, 150 crews providesimultaneous live broadcasting of 472 classes across 10 studios ⁃ EBS provides the same online live broadcasting with thetimetables from the schools and you can download the EBS texts for free ⁃ In response to COVID 19, we are providing the largest ever onlineeducation model in our history With the opening days of the school term ofelementary, middle and high schools postponed for another two weeks until April6th, EBS (President Kim Myung-joong) mobilized 12 E-learning studios at theirfull capacity and organized the 'EBS 2-Week Live Schooling Courses’ for all 12grades of elementary, junior, and high school. From March 23rd to April 3rd, ‘EBS 2-Week LiveSchooling Courses’ will be provided for two weeks following the timetables ofschools on the EBS elementary, middle and high school sites in order to keep upschool progress for the new semester. The existing Special High School Live Lecture targetedhigh school students, drawing attention from the public, and so EBS hasexpanded this new Special Live Lecture to all grades of students in elementary,middle and high school, as well as organized an unprecedented combination ofsimultaneous live streaming on the Internet using ten studios. In terms of production scale, 150 crew members willspecially produce 472 classes in ten studios and broadcast them in real time.To this end, EBS also introduced other devices for internet live streaming. EBSplans to mobilize company-wide capabilities such as disinfection and diseasesurveillance during the broadcast period by organizing a special team dedicatedto COVID-19 in order to prevent daily live broadcasting from needing to pause. ‘EBS 2-Week Live Schooling Courses’ is anunprecedented and organized system not only in Korea but also amongst foreignbroadcasters. In order to overcome the temporary paralysis of school functionsaround the world, EBS decided to fulfill its role as a designated “NationalDisaster Education Broadcasting Company” in close cooperation with the Ministryof Education and the Korea Communications Commission. On the other hand, EBS textbooks that are used aslecture materials for two weeks can be downloaded free of charge from each EBSelementary, middle, and high school site. In the case of first and secondgraders, taking their development into account, EBS will broadcast “Adapting toSchool Life” and “Basic Course Contents” through the EBS Plus 2 Channel insteadof live streaming it on the internet. The 3rd to 6th graders can take classes from the EBSelementary site (primary.ebs.co.kr) from 9 am to 12 am, 7th-9th graders from 9am to 1 pm on the EBS middle school site (mid.ebs.co.kr), 10th graders from 9am to 1 pm, and 11th-12th graders from 9 am to 4 pm on the high school site(ebsi.co.kr) in the same way as school classes. In addition, all live speciallectures and related learning materials will be available through a ‘Replay’service at EBS elementary, middle, and high school sites. (*For the detailedschedule of each grader, see the attachment below) ‘EBS 2-Week Live Schooling Courses’ are expected tosignificantly resolve the learning gap caused by the additional postponement ofthe new semester through interactions with EBS's lecturers in real time throughcomments. ‘Special Lecture for 5 Days Live,' which was urgently formed on March9 due to the unprecedented postponement of the new semester, attracted morethan 250,000 comments (as of March 17). On this online platform where teachersinteracted with students, we found the possibility to succeed in new forms oflearning. EBS President Kim Myung-joong states, “As our advancedsystem to combat the epidemic is praised by people around the world, EBS'sonline live broadcasting can become a new education model in response todisaster in a global emergency where schools are closed.” * EBS : Korea Educational Broadcasting System As the one and only educational broadcasting channel in Korea, EBS provides top-notch programs for children and high quality documentaries for all age group. It not only complements public education, reducing the unnecessary private education cost, but it also functions as a driving force for enhancing equality in education. In the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution, moreover, it is now offering the interactive E-learning system that anyone can access at any time with any device, along with the customer-oriented services. * homepage : http://global.ebs.co.kr/global/main http://www.ebs.co.kr/main