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[OSS 2018 Berlin] OpenStack Summit 2018 Berlin : Media & Analyst Briefing Session

OpenStack Foundation (OSF) held 'OpenStack Summit Berlin' at Citycube Berlin, Germany from November 13 to 15. 'OpenStack Summit Berlin' was held under the theme of 'Open Infrastructure', with over 200 sessions and workshops in more than 35 projects with experts and representatives from over 50 countries. ‘OpenStack Summit Berlin’ addresses not only the cloud but also innovative technologies and cases of various types of ‘Open Infrastructure’ ranging from edge computing, CI/CD, AI, network virtualization (NFV). And more than 200 sessions and workshops were held in more than 35 open source projects. In particular, Germany, where the summit was held, is considered to be one of the most active areas where OpenStack is used. Large telecommunication companies, enterprises and public cloud service providers in Germany are actively utilizing the OpenStack-based environment, and it is also considered to be an active region in terms of community size and activity. OpenStack Foundation has also released some new news through ‘OpenStack Summit Berlin’. First, with the current progress of four new ‘pilot projects’ which have been introduced at the OpenStack Summit in addition to the OpenStack project in the past year, the new project policy reflecting it was announced. Moreover, the application area of OpenStack has expanded to artificial intelligence and HPC, so various project updates for this were introduced. Meanwhile, the OpenStack Foundation also announced the plan to change the name of the Summit from 'OpenStack Summit' to 'Open Infrastructure Summit' from the next summit. ▲ Jonathan Bryce, executive director of OSF, and Mark Collier, COO of OSF, hosted the briefing session. ▲ The current progress with OpenStack Foundation Projects First, the OSF reported that the OpenStack’s community members are more than 100,000 recently and 187 countries and 675 organizations participated in the community. This is an increase of 33% compared to last year, and it can be seen that more community members have been introduced since the establishment of the basis as 'Open Infrastructure'. Moreover, with the expansion of these communities and the emergence of new projects, the OSF emphasized that the four ‘open’ principles, which have been maintained since the foundation, have become a firm standard in project policy and management. 'Open Infrastructure' means using open source-based components to build the latest software defined-based IT infrastructure environment. 'Open Infrastructure', where everything is based on open source, ultimately provides various strengths including flexibility beyond dependencies on specific vendors and technologies, community-based innovation, interoperability between various components, and accessibility to collective intelligence that open source community has. Moreover, ‘Open Infrastructure’ is based on a path from open-cloud native to next-generation applications. Last year, the OSF first introduced the ‘Pilot Project’ in addition to the OpenStack Project, and then established a system and plan for the management of the pilot project for about a year. Currently, there are four pilot projects, and the policy had been finalized before the summit. The 18-month pilot project will follow the ‘Open Infrastructure’ mission, four ‘open’ principles, and OSI-approved licensing models, and present one or more future releases. If a project is approved by the BoD, it will enter the ‘confirmed’ phase, which offers long-term support and investment from the Foundation. Currently, the OSF is managing five projects, of which only the OpenStack project is classified as the ‘confirmed’ stage. Mainly focusing areas of the 'Open Infrastructure' strategy by the OSF's projects are data centers, CI/CD, container infrastructure, edge computing, etc. Recently, AI and machine learning have been added, so total 5 areas were introduced. As a process for innovation in the market, a ‘four-stage of integration’ will continue to be applied; a) find common use cases, b) collaborate across communities, c) develop new technologies needed for integration, d) tests in all areas ▲ Various organizations around the world participated in the summit to use OpenStack and share cases. ▲ The latest user survey highlights a wider user base and how to use OpenStack. ▲ One of the reasons for hosting the summit in China in 2019 2H is the growth of the market. Over the last year, during the release cycle of the latest version of OpenStack, ‘Rocky’, the number of commits reached 70,000, an average of 182 per day, and the open source projects that had been so active were only Linux Kernel and Chromium. Another highlight of the community's activation side is the presence of companies that presented use cases at the summit, including keynote speakers such as BMW, Volkswagen Group, Verizon, and AT&T. The firms in the financial sector such as SBAB and UnionPay also participated in the summit, and in Korea, SK Telecom had prepared a session on the use of OpenStack-based technologies. In addition, the main content of the recent OpenStack user survey was the growth of OpenStack bare metal cloud, and it was introduced that the integration with Kubernetes led this trend. In a production environment, the use of the OpenStack 'Ironic' has risen from 9% in 2016 to 24% in 2018, and the OpenStack distribution environment based on Kubernetes has been increased up to 37%. What’s more, the survey shows that the multi-cloud OpenStack users highly rely on OpenStack. The most common use was AWS(44%), followed by Azure(28%) and GCP(24%). On average, 58% among these multi-cloud environments are OpenStack based environments. Furthermore, the diversity of the OpenStack user base was also noticeable in the survey. Organizations that still use OpenStack are related to IT, but this percentage has been slightly down from 44% this year compared to 51% last year. The biggest increase, on the other hand, is 'financial services'. The government and defense division have been increased from 4% last year to 6% this year, while retail and e-commerce segments have been increased from 3% last year to 4% this year. Meanwhile, there was a decrease in the proportion of non-IT related parts, and it is ‘telecommunication’ part, which has been decreased to 10% this year from 13% last year. On the other hand, China has been ranked as an important market where OpenStack is rapidly growing. China's private cloud market has grown at a CAGR of around 25% for the past three years, with government, manufacturing, and finance taking up large portions. In China's private cloud market, the open source accounts for 70% of the total. OpenStack became an actual ‘standard’ in this market. 4 of the top 5 private cloud vendors and 13 of the top 20 are based on OpenStack. Also, the survey showed that the adoption rate of open source solutions for enterprise users is very high.

[OSS 2018 Berlin] OpenStack Summit 2018 Berlin : Day 2 Keynotes

OpenStack Foundation (OSF) held 'OpenStack Summit Berlin' at Citycube Berlin, Germany from November 13 to 15. 'OpenStack Summit Berlin' was held under the theme of 'Open Infrastructure', with over 200 sessions and workshops in more than 35 projects with experts and representatives from over 50 countries. ‘OpenStack Summit Berlin’ addresses not only the cloud but also innovative technologies and cases of various types of ‘Open Infrastructure’ ranging from edge computing, CI/CD, AI, network virtualization (NFV). And more than 200 sessions and workshops were held in more than 35 open source projects. In particular, Germany, where the summit was held, is considered to be one of the most active areas where OpenStack is used. Large telecommunication companies, enterprises and public cloud service providers in Germany are actively utilizing the OpenStack-based environment, and it is also considered to be an active region in terms of community size and activity. OpenStack Foundation has also released some new news through ‘OpenStack Summit Berlin’. First, with the current progress of four new ‘pilot projects’ which have been introduced at the OpenStack Summit in addition to the OpenStack project in the past year, the new project policy reflecting it was announced. Moreover, the application area of OpenStack has expanded to artificial intelligence and HPC, so various project updates for this were introduced. Meanwhile, the OpenStack Foundation also announced the plan to change the name of the Summit from 'OpenStack Summit' to 'Open Infrastructure Summit' from the next summit. ▲ Mark Collier, chief operating officer, OpenStack Foundation ▲ According to the emergence of ‘pilot projects’, the mission of the foundation was extended further. As breaking news, Mark Collier, COO of OpenStack Foundation, announced that the name of the next OpenStack release, which has been decided in an alphabetical order, will be ‘Train’. He explained that the idea came from a train that kept everyone awake at the Denver PTG, since the location is near the station. Also, he stated that the next OpenStack Summit that will be held at Denver in April 2019 will be the first summit called as ‘Open Infrastructure Summit’, and the ‘Open Infrastructure Summit’ in the fourth quarter of 2019 will be the first summit held in China, a rapidly emerging market. Meanwhile, last year at the summit, OpenStack Foundation launched four new projects, including Airship, Kata Containers, StarlingX, and Zuul. And the Foundation's project management system is organized into two phases, a 'Pilot' and 'Confirmed' model, in order to create a successful community that can collaborate. Currently, four of OpenStack Foundation projects are in the 'Pilot' phase, and OpenStack project is classified as a long term project at the 'Confirmed' phase. The pilot project chosen by OpenStack Foundation starts with ‘Code’ and enters the 'Confirmed' phase for long-term investment once the community has been created with an incubation period of 18 months and enough time to continue. At this point, the pilot project should be able to participate in the movement of community and open source integration strategies for 'Open Infrastructure', follow the four 'Open' principles, and use the OSI-approved license model. Then, after presenting one or more releases after 18 months and has been approved by the board of directors, the Foundation's long-term investment and support will be provided in the 'Confirmed' project. ▲ These four ‘Open’ principles already are, and will be the fundamental to the Foundation's projects. ▲ 'Community Contributor Awards' was held. The four ‘Open’ principles, also considered as philosophies that have been around since the beginning of OpenStack, are comprised of elements of source, design, development and community. And of these, ‘open source’ has a number of licensing models to choose from, and the Foundation introduced that it uses an OSI-approved license. The community aspect is a matter of 'accessibility', emphasizing that everybody can access anywhere, and that they are open to any company or individual in their leadership position. The global side of the community is also important, so the Foundation provides tools and technologies that anyone can access and participate anywhere. In aspect of the development in ‘Open’, every individual change to the code has visibility into the process from the time it had been first written. In the design side of ‘Open’, all ideas have to be reviewed and considered after coding. In addition, while this may seem to give up 'control', it was emphasized that by collecting the opinions of all contributors, ultimately better results will be obtained. Furthermore, ‘Open Design’ enables the true ‘open collaboration’ by opening the process of decision-making to everyone. It was emphasized that the question of whether this system works well has been proven over the years. In addition, 'Open Design' in open source projects is already being widely used and achieving 'Open Collaboration' around the world. Also, among other open source projects, OpenStack project is already one of the three most active projects in history, along with the Linux Kernel and Chromium. At the same time, the reason why this system can actually be conducted is that all contributors are making differentiation and it is ‘the most democratic’ model that all participants can speak up. Next, with ‘Community Contributor Awards’ ceremony, Joseph Sandoval, cloud platform manager of Adobe, and member of User Committee, introduced about ‘Mentoring Others to Foster Diversity’. He first pointed out diversity and inclusiveness as elements that allow individuals to feel belonging to the community, and at this point, mentors can further grow diversity. And as a way to become an effective mentor, he recommended sharing experience and using open source as a platform to enable diversity. ▲ Airship project is currently 1.0 RC and aims at releasing 1.0 in Q2 2019. ▲ AT&T showed a demonstration of delivering 5G infrastructure and connecting remote sites right from the field. One of the pilot projects of OpenStack Foundation, Airship project is a platform for lifecycle management in open infrastructures, providing an end-to-end deployment and update environment for the entire site. The project was started from ‘OpenStack Helm’ in 2016. Airship upstream was begun in 2017 and was added as a pilot project at ‘Vancouver Summit’ in 2018. Through ‘OpenStack Summit Berlin’, Airship project has released 1.0 RC (Release Candidate), and the official 1.0 release is expected to be available in early 2019. Airship Project is an environment in which users provide lifecycle management such as large-scale deployments and updates in various infrastructure environments such as containers, virtual machines, bare metal, etc., and is especially active in 5G and edge computing environments where numerous remote deployment and management is required. In addition, this project is a user-led project, so AT&T and SK Telecom are leading actively for the 5G environment, NFV, VDI and big data processing. At this summit, AT&T presented the 5G environment deployment and demonstration on the cloud basis by using OpenStack and Airship project. AT&T stated that the evolution of the network, which was largely a decade-long cycle, is now entering the early stages of 5G, and 5G can accommodate larger capacity, higher reliability, more coverage, lower latency, more devices and a wider range of applications. On top of that, beyond transition of the simple generation, it is now at the key position in the implementation of new applications such as drones, smart factories, autonomous vehicles and AR/VR. And in the implementation of 5G, AT&T utilized OpenStack, helm, Airship, etc. in a network cloud on a software-defined basis, and it demonstrated that it is possible to respond immediately to a failure by deploying a containerized 5G environment on an edge infrastructure node. ▲ ‘Zuul’ started with the development environment of OpenStack, one of the largest open source projects currently. ▲ ‘StarlingX’ has an edge-specific structure. Zuul is a Project Gating System (PGS), a project derived from the development of OpenStack. And, in a project where a lot of developers are involved, if the code that does not work properly is integrated into the system, the entire project will be destroyed. In this case, Zuul automatically inspects incoming code to make sure it's working properly, and lets people focus on more creative areas. It was also added that 'free software' will need free tools. The v3 release of Zuul was presented at the last Vancouver Summit. Now, Zuul aims for more general use, rather than just project of OpenStack, and a variety of use cases are coming out. Notable new features include 'Supercedent Pipeline Managers', 'Job Pause', improved usability in mobile environments by rewriting web dashboard in React, and supporting Kubernetes build resources. In addition, BMW was introduced as the leading example of a large-scale use. That is, BMW has effectively deployed Zuul in the global automotive software development environment. StarlingX has launched its first release on October 24 as an open source edge platform for communications and industrial IOT use cases. It is an OpenStack environment for ‘Edge’, which coordinates components such as Ceph, OpenStack, and Kubernetes, and supplements them to satisfy new requirements such as high availability (HA), QoS, performance and ultra-low latency environments. Moreover, this project has provided a variety of values to solve various problems in real-world use cases, and vRAN in network edge, health care, and transportation were mentioned as the most likely to be used in the future. What’s more, it was stated that StarlingX will do three releases a year for future release plans. Next, Melissa Evers-Hood from Intel introduced that OpenStack is at the heart of software-defined infrastructures, and in terms of the importance of edge computing, more data will be generated, stored and analyzed on the edge. She also mentioned several technologies of OpenStack ecosystem from this ‘Edge’; ‘StarlingX’, which is OpenStack for edge, ‘Project Cyborg’, which enables direct use of hardware accelerator resources in OpenStack environments, ‘NEMU’, which is a hypervisor for small cloud and edge with no legacy support, and ‘Kata Container’, which is lightweight, fast and safe. ▲ Kata Container complements the lack of 'isolation' of an existing container environment. 'Kata Container' is a technology to reinforce the insufficient inter-container isolation of an existing container environment when sharing the kernel of the host. It can be used as an existing container, but it is a technology that can take advantage of VM's workload isolation and security aspects by inserting a lightweight self-kernel in the container package and connects it with the host through hardware virtualization technology. In particular, the technology can be easily integrated into the management system of an existing container, and the technology focuses on more architectural support, feature extensions, and community extensions. In addition, Kata Container technology has expanded its supporting architecture from x86 to ARM and IBM p-series, and has improved random number generation and seccomp support options. In the future version 1.4, improved log function, ipvlan/macvlan support through TC mirroring, and NEMU hypervisor support were introduced as plans. Moreover, the Kata Container community is working closely with OCI and Kubernetes communities for compatibility, and is testing regularly in Azure, GCP, and OpenStack public cloud environments. Mark Shuttleworth, CEO of Canonical, stressed that Canonical not only provides Linux and OpenStack solutions, but also manages OpenStack-based clouds more than any other company. It has supported all individual OpenStack releases and upgrades to date, so if Kubernetes environment is built on the ‘Icehouse’ environment based on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, five years ago, it will provide a way to upgrade the OpenStack environment to 'Mitaka' without changing any other parts. After upgrading the OS, it is possible to continue the upgrades of OpenStack. Of course, the latest 18.04 LTS is available for up to 10 years of use, which is a useful option for long-term applications. And he emphasized that a stable operation for a long time was done entirely of the same code that contributed to the community. Cost-to-performance is also an important part, and now private clouds need to have clear advantages in terms of performance, cost, and security compared to large public clouds. It was said that Canonical is helping enterprise customers build a 'full stack OpenStack' from hardware selection to configuration, deployment and support of an optimized OpenStack environment. He added that the OpenStack, which can be operated with fewer people, will provide clear advantages in terms of cost, and it can also use a multi-cloud strategy with an OpenStack-based full managed cloud. ▲ GPU utilization in the cloud is now available on a complete open source basis. OpenStack provided ways to directly use GPU and FPGA through Nova and Cyborg for artificial intelligence, machine learning, and HPC, which have recently become very popular. The demonstration of a speech recognition application using GPU in the OpenStack-based cloud was shown. All of the components used in the process of recognizing, translating, and outputting speech in video were open source based, and on the use of GPU on an OpenStack basis delivered several times better performance than the traditional processor. The use of FPGAs in OpenStack-based environment is possible through the 'cyborg' project. At the Summit, OpenStack showed how to configure the FPGA application environment for video recognition applications based on OpenStack infrastructure. In addition, the Summit's ‘Superuser Awards’ was awarded by Citynetwork. Citynetwork was introduced that it is running OpenStack-based public cloud in eight locations across three continents, with more than 25,000 cores in production and more than 2,000 users. ▲ This year’s ‘Superuser Awards’ was awarded by Citynetwork.

[OSS 2018 Berlin] OpenStack Summit 2018 Berlin : Day 1 Keynotes

OpenStack Foundation (OSF) held 'OpenStack Summit Berlin' at Citycube Berlin, Germany from November 13 to 15. 'OpenStack Summit Berlin' was held under the theme of 'Open Infrastructure', with over 200 sessions and workshops in more than 35 projects with experts and representatives from over 50 countries. ‘OpenStack Summit Berlin’ addresses not only the cloud but also innovative technologies and cases of various types of ‘Open Infrastructure’ ranging from edge computing, CI/CD, AI, network virtualization (NFV). And more than 200 sessions and workshops were held in more than 35 open source projects. In particular, Germany, where the summit was held, is considered to be one of the most active areas where OpenStack is used. Large telecommunication companies, enterprises and public cloud service providers in Germany are actively utilizing the OpenStack-based environment, and it is also considered to be an active region in terms of community size and activity. OpenStack Foundation has also released some new news through ‘OpenStack Summit Berlin’. First, with the current progress of four new ‘pilot projects’ which have been introduced at the OpenStack Summit in addition to the OpenStack project in the past year, the new project policy reflecting it was announced. Moreover, the application area of OpenStack has expanded to artificial intelligence and HPC, so various project updates for this were introduced. Meanwhile, the OpenStack Foundation also announced the plan to change the name of the Summit from 'OpenStack Summit' to 'Open Infrastructure Summit' from the next summit. ▲ Jonathan Bryce, executive director of OpenStack Foundation ▲ Now, OpenStack is based on all the forms of ‘Open Infrastructure’. Jonathan Bryce, executive director of OpenStack Foundation, first introduced that OpenStack Summit has become a massive global event, and this summit is a summit held in Europe again after two years in Barcelona in 2016. And he stated that at the recent events, OpenStack showed ‘Open Infrastructure’ as an important message, and there is a need to think about what opportunities there are in terms of technology and community. In addition, 81% of respondents in various surveys answered that open source is expected to be more important in the coming years. In addition, he mentioned ‘flexibility’ over the business model as a point that companies consider significant with considerations of open source, and this is consistent with the results of OpenStack Foundation’s user survey and the survey results from external agencies. This is due to the wide variety of options that the open source ecosystem brings to, and thanks to this, the OpenStack is used not only in many enterprise private clouds, but also in over 75 public cloud data centers around the world, which is a reflection of flexibility over the business. At the same time, Bryce talked about the advantages provided by open source. It protects against vendor lock-in and allows to work across multiple environments, and it also offers advantages in integration and implementation. With open source, it is possible to innovate, in some instances, faster than the market. On top of that, ‘Open Infrastructure’ reflects requested changes in infrastructure over the last few years, such as the emergence of software-defined base, new workloads like Cloud Native and AI. And ‘Open Infrastructure’ combines with open source based technologies, so it has various features including flexibility, innovation, interoperability, and collective intelligence of communities. According to Bryce, the OpenStack project is one of the most vibrant projects around the world, as it had 70,000 commits over the last year, and 182 changes per day in the terms of Rocky release. Now, OpenStack became a software-defined based ‘base infrastructure’ that connects new environments such as containers, and new applications such as AI, machine learning, and edge computing, in addition to VMs and data centers, and encompasses network environments of service providers. Therefore, as the OpenStack Summit covers not just OpenStack, but also a variety of projects, the next summit will be called ‘Open Infrastructure Summit’. ▲ In the case of Oerlikon, the manufacturing environment was optimized after collecting data from machines based on OpenStack. ▲ Kubernetes and OpenStack are now going together. In the case of Oerlikon's ManMade Fibers segment, OpenStack was used to create an infrastructure environment for integrating legacy, container and third-party workloads. In the production of yarn at a fast speed, a little failure that occurs momentarily creates a big problem. So, in order to optimize the process, Oerlikon digitized the combination of machine learning, process integration and automation, and introduced AI technology based on edge computing. This allows 69,120 sensors on 120 machines of the yarn production for the seat belts located geographically far from each other to sense data, view fault graphs, make 350,000 online decisions per day, and optimize models for data collection and training. Nick Barcet, senior director of OpenStack Product Management at Red Hat, stressed that OpenStack is a good tool for ‘Open Infrastructure’ that spans public, private cloud, service providers, NFV, etc. In addition, with many new workload including containers, AI/ML, big data, HPC and direct hardware access, a variety of deployment models, such as containers in VMs, containers on bare metal, and multi-tenant BMaaS are appearing. In these various cases, even OpenStack cannot respond to all of them with OpenStack’s internal technologies. Therefore, when OpenStack and Kubernetes meet, they can be seen as a complement to each other, rather than a competitive one, and Barcet stated that the point where they meet should be the location of ‘Open Infrastructure’. This is also because OpenStack can provide an infrastructure environment for deploying Kubernetes in large environments. And Red Hat has announced ‘Red Hat OpenStack Platform 14’, based on the release of Rocky, at the Berlin Summit. As a feature of the release, reinforcement of OpenStack-based OpenShift capabilities was introduced. This version will be released to public in December. Red Hat also introduced a new Virtual Central Office (VCO) for the edge environment. It is a flexible open pluggable framework that simplifies deployment and management of edge-based services, including OPNFV, OpenStack, Kubernetes, ODL, Ansible, etc. Besides, Red Hat mentioned ‘dynamic migration’, which brings workloads of VMware to an OpenStack-based environment with a GUI-based interface, and introduction of 3-month release cycle, which is faster that the general 6-month cycle for introducing latest functions and accelerating innovations. ▲ Sweden SBAB took advantage of active automation and 'micro services' on OpenStack basis. ▲ Hybrid service with public cloud stack on individual hardware was introduced. In the case of SBAB Bank in Sweden, it was introduced that change in the IT architecture that supports tasks was essential for speeding up important tasks. To this end, many changes were made in the architecture as follows. By dismantling the ‘monolithic’ approach in which all of the existing components were unified, it was possible to focus on speed and customer-facing applications through micro-services based on OpenStack platform. In addition, by applying automation to every possible step, waiting time has been minimized. There was also a great effect in reducing the downtime caused by modification in the deployment, which was a problem in the existing environment. Deutsche Telekom stated that OpenStack is large and sometimes complex, but it is a very flexible platform for all aspects of the cloud. Deutsche Telekom showed demonstration of changing common images into the images with the feel of famous artists, using AI technology serviced by OpenStack-based infrastructure. And it is said that OpenStack-based ‘Open Telekom Cloud’ is now being transformed from infrastructure to platform. In terms of supporting containers, Deutsche Telekom integrates the functions related to the operation of the Kubernetes with OpenStack-based platform and provides enhanced data protection through ‘Kata Container’. Moreover, ‘Day-2-Operations’, which provides professionalism in a reliable operation, offers the best user experience through accurate capacity management based on the accurate analysis and monitoring of the infrastructure. Besides, in aspect of security, the concept of ‘hybrid’ was introduced as taking advantages of both the benefits of a public cloud and the security of separated hardware. It is a full managed hybrid cloud running on separated hardware with OpenStack environment based, and it can be installed and operated in a customer’s data center. ▲ Tilman Schulz, lead, Private Cloud Services, Volkswagen AG, and Lauren Sell, vice president of marketing and community services, OpenStack Foundation ▲ ‘Fusion Cloud’ of Huawei suggests a full-stack cloud solution. Volkswagen group is a long-time user of OpenStack and has been successfully running an OpenStack-based cloud infrastructure since 2015. It introduced that the recent changes in the automobile industry have been extended not only to production and service provision of automobiles, but also to ‘mobility services’, and it was pointed out that it is important to respond cost efficiently and effectively. And in response to this demand, OpenStack-based environment has high performance, reliability, manageability, cost-efficiently, and flexibility and expandability to cope with change. For future tasks, Volkswagen group mentioned performance of upgrades that has less impact on the usage environment. Frank Weyns, chief system architect of Cloud Computing Western Europe in Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. stressed that OpenStack is now the perfect ‘Open Infrastructure’ platform to glue together new technologies, software, hardware, etc. He also highlighted that OpenStack is useful not only in the cloud but also in IoT, and it plays an important role in linking technologies for ‘digital transformation’. What’s more, ‘Full Stack Cloud’ is a model where resource convergence, data intelligence, and service innovation gather together to create the revolution of the general cloud, and the core technologies for this are AI, big data, cloud, DevOps, and edge computing. The introduction of AI technology in the cloud reduces mistakes by human in more complex cloud environments and implements ‘self-healing’ by automatically responding to abnormal situations. Furthermore, in the big data section, he explained that various databases can be combined as needed on an OpenStack basis. In case of the cloud, with a full-stack private cloud that has a feeling of public cloud, IT operations will be simplified, and the service roll-out periods will be dramatically reduced through OpenStack and Kubernetes’s automated orchestrations. Besides, in the edge computing section, the viewpoint of intelligence, mobilization, edge automation, and edge-cloud integration were introduced. ▲ The addition of functionality for Ironic’s infrastructure operators should be the results of project contributions from the operators. ▲ A case of OpenStack infrastructure upgrade without downtime was shared. Meanwhile, OpenStack is now being operated in more than 10 million cores worldwide, and well utilized in a production environment with a variety of new use cases are coming out. Also, the contribution to development is happening all over the world, and in the latest ‘Rocky’ cycle, there were 32,800 changes. A noteworthy trend in terms of contributions is that the percentage of ‘operator’ participation is increasing. With the increase of collaboration with operators in the project team and the increase of operator’s participation in PTG, it was explained that 25% of all commits are contributed by operators. At the same time, it was introduced that the latest update of Ironic allows operators to make changes to their BIOS settings with software tools to make it easier to deploy OpenStack’s bare metal. In addition, the new hardware architecture supports ARM architecture as well as x86, and the Cyborg project enabled direct use of GPU, FPGA to accelerate workloads of AI and machine learning. Besides, the size of the deployment has been further reduced to make it more versatile, and Magnum now became the official Kubernetes installer in terms of infrastructure support over compute. It was introduced that OVH was mentioned as the operating example of an OpenStack-base public cloud. OVH operates global scale bare metal, private and public cloud at 28 data centers and 360,000 servers. And OpenStack is not only the main layer of their public cloud, but also the abstract layer of bare metal and internally the foundation of its own infrastructure. In an OpenStack-based environment, they complete an initial configuration of a new region in about eight hours, and successfully completed a region-level version upgrade where up to 50,000 instances are operated in four hours without downtime with a year of R&D. In addition, NVIDIA Tesla-based GPU cloud was implemented as a hardware direct connection in an OpenStack basis via PCI passthrough.